U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-4000


Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program

Updating a Strategic Highway Safety Plan: Learning from the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) - November 2009

Proceedings from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA)
Highway Safety Peer-to-Peer Exchange Program

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Idaho DOT
Federal Highway Administration
Missouri DOT
Washington State DOT


Idaho DOT

Slide 1:  Idaho's Crash Problem & Programs

Slide 2:  Goals

  • Mission — Zero traffic deaths on Idaho roads
  • Fewer than 200 annual traffic deaths by 2012

Slide 3:  Idaho's Problem

  • 232 people killed in 2008
  • Fathers, mothers, children, brothers and sisters
  • Leading cause of death in Idaho for 1 to 34

Slide 4:  3-Year Running Average Fatalities National

The line graph on this slide shows fatalities on USA roads. The X-axis is labeled Time Period (yrs), with each value along the axis representing a three-year period, beginning with 1991 to 1993 and ending with 2006 to 2008. The Y-axis is labeled Average Fatalities, with a low value of 39,000 and a high of 43,500. The graph shows the following: fatalities rose from between 1992 and 1997, from an average of 40,250 fatalities to just under 42,000; dropped slightly between 1997 and 2000; rose gradually between 2000 and 2006 to just under 43,000 average fatalities; and then dropped to approximately 40,250 average fatalities by the end of 2008.

Slide 5:  3-Years Running Average Fatalities - National

Idaho Yearly vs. 5-Year Average Fatalities

The line graph on this slide displays fatalities on Idaho roads and compares Idaho yearly fatalities against 5-Year average fatalities. The X-axis is labeled Time Period (yrs), with each value along the axis representing a single year, beginning with 1994 and ending with 2008. The Y-axis is labeled Average Fatalities, with the low value of 200 and a high of 300. The graph is superimposed on the 3-year Running Average Facilities National described in Slide 4. The graph shows yearly fatalities on Idaho roads range between a high mark of 293 in 2003 and a low mark of 232 in 2008. The graph also shows that yearly fatalities have dropped in consecutive years since 2005, with 275 fatalities in that year compared to 232 fatalities in 2008. The graph shows that fatalities on Idaho roads are beneath the national average.

Slide 6:  Fatality Location

  • State System: Total — 63%, Rural — 64%, Urban — 60%
  • Non State: Total — 37%, Rural — 36%, Urban — 40%
  • Total: Total — 100%, Rural — 78%, Urban — 22%

Slide 7:  Fatalities by Quarter

This slide displays a bar graph titled Number of Fatalities and shows the number of fatalities by quarter in the calendar years 2004 through 2008. A vertical bar broken into quarters is displayed for each year. The number of fatalities appears in each quarter on the bar. The X-axis is labeled Calendar Year; the Y-axis are numbers that range between 0 – 300.

Year 1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter Total
2004 42 59 96 63 260
2005 49 57 105 64 275
2006 50 72 84 61 267
2007 53 57 88 54 252
2008 45 69 61 57 232

Slide 8:  Serious Injuries

A slide titled Serious Injuries displaying a bar graph titled Serious Injuries, showing the number of serious injuries in calendar years 2004 through 2008. A vertical bar is displayed for each year. At the top of each bar is the total number of serious injuries for that calendar year. The X-axis is labeled Calendar Year; the Y-axis are numbers that range between 0 – 2,000.

Year Serious Injuries
2004 1667
2005 1812
2006 1689
2007 1806
2008 1503

Slide 9:  Economic Costs of Crashes

  • $2.6 billion, $1700 per Idahoan in 2008
  • Society pays 75% of total crash costs
  • Society pays 85% of medical costs
  • 87% of public know they are paying these costs

Slide 10:  Behavior

  • Aggressive Driving — 45%
  • Inattentive Driving — 30%
  • Safety Restraints — 29%
  • Impaired Driving — 24%
  • Youthful Driver — 18%
  • Vulnerable Users — 17%
  • Commercial Vehicles — 9%
  • Motorcycle — 8%

Slide 11:  Current Programs

  • Idaho Highway Safety Coalition
  • Statewide Mobilizations including paid media and enforcement
  • Law Enforcement Liaison Program
  • Alive at 25 Program

Slide 12:  Infrastructure

  • Lane departure — 45%
    • Single Vehicle Run-Off-Road — 35%
    • Head On/Side Swipe — 10%
  • Intersections — 27%

Slide 13:  Proven Roadway Countermeasures

  • Rumble Strips and Stripes
  • Safety Edge
  • Roundabouts
  • Turn Lanes at Stop Controlled Intersections
  • Yellow Clearance Intervals
  • Road Safety Audits and Follow-up

Slide 14:  Idaho's Safety Philosophy

  • Continued focus on severe crashes
  • Focus on system-wide improvements
  • Continue to focus on point locations

Slide 15:  Crash Response

  • Quick and effective response
  • Safety of emergency responders
  • Appropriate training and equipment
  • Re-opening of roadway
  • Provide for accurate crash data

Slide 16:  Summary

  • Partnerships
  • Data
  • Culture
  • Commitment
  • Evaluation

Slide 17:  Contact Information

Mary Hunter
Highway Safety Manager
208-334-8101
Mary.Hunter@itd.idaho.gov

Brent Jennings, P.E.
State Hwy Operations & Safety Engineer
208-334-8557
Brent.Jennings@itd.idaho.gov

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Federal Highway Administration

Slide 18: Highway Safety Improvement Program/Strategic Highway Safety Plan

Idaho Strategic Highway Safety Plan Workshop
November 4, 2009

Slide 19:  What is Road Safety?

The number of crashes, by kind and severity, expected to occur on the entity during a specific period.

Slide 20:  U.S. Fatality Trends

This slide displays a line graph titled U.S. Fatality Trends. The X-axis is labeled Year with each value along the axis representing a year beginning with 1994 and ending with 2008. The line graph shows the number of fatalities in each year between 1994 and 2006 is roughly even (range of 42,000 – 44,000 fatalities per year) until 2007, when the number drops to just over 40,000 in 2007, down to approximately 37,000 fatalities in 2008.

Slide 21:  Collaborative Plans & Programs

  • Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP)
  • Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSP)
  • SHSP Update — Based on input from 49 Division Offices.
  • The Essential Eight — A Strategic Highway Safety Plan Implementation Process Model (SHSP IPM)
  • Highway Safety Improvement Program — 10% Flex Funds

Slide 22:  Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP)

The HSIP is a core Federal-aid funding program that emphasizes a data-driven, strategic approach to improving highway safety that focuses on results.

Slide 23:  Purpose of the HSIP

To achieve a significant reduction in fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads through the implementation of infrastructure-related highway safety improvements.

Slide 24:  Legislative References

  • SAFETEA-LU
    - 23 U.S.C. 148: Highway Safety Improvement Program
    - 23 U.S.C. 130: Railway-Highway Crossing Program
  • Federal Regulation
    - 23 CFR 924: Highway Safety Improvement Program

Slide 25:  HSIP Programs

  • Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSP)
  • State Highway Safety Improvement Program
    - Highway safety improvement projects
  • High Risk Rural Roads Program
  • Railway-Highway Crossing Program

Slide 26:  What is SHSP?

An SHSP is a statewide-coordinated safety plan that provides a comprehensive framework, and specific goals and objectives, for reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads.

Slide 26:  Purpose of a SHSP

  • To identify the State's key safety needs and guide investment decisions to achieve significant reductions in highway fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads.
  • The SHSP was established in SAFETEA-LU U.S.C. Section 148 as part of the Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP), which is a core Federal-aid program.

Slide 27:  Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSP)

  • Data-driven, statewide plan of strategies that provide a framework for reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries
  • Developed by State DOTs through a collaborative process with safety stakeholders
  • Integrates the 4Es — engineering, education, enforcement, and emergency medical services
  • Considers the safety needs of all public roads
  • Guides investment decisions

Slide 28:  Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSP)

  • Benefits of the SHSP
    • Common statewide safety goals and priorities
    • Strengthens existing partnerships
    • Builds new safety coalitions
    • Shared data, knowledge, and resources
    • Leverages resources

Slide 29:  Integrating into Other Transportation Plans and Programs

This slide displays a flow chart titled Integrating into Other Transportation Plans and Programs. The flow chart shows the relationship of the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) to other transportation planning processes and plans. A SHSP "block" is at the center of the slide. Above the SHSP block are two adjacent blocks labeled Metropolitan Transportation Plans and Statewide Transportation Plans (Long Range Plan) respectively. The flowchart shows a two-way exchange between all three blocks. Below the SHSP block are two adjacent blocks labeled TIP (Metropolitan) and HSIP (23 U.S.C. 148) respectively, and beneath the HSIP block, a Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) block. The flowchart shows a two-way exchange between the SHSP block and the HSIP block and two-way exchange between the HSIP block and the TIP (Metropolitan) block but no exchange between SHSP and TIP blocks. The flowchart continues to show a one-way exchange from the Metropolitan Transportation Plans block at the top of the flowchart and the TIP (Metropolitan) block at the bottom and a one-way exchange from the HSIP block to the STIP block. To the right of the SHSP block lay three blocks labeled CVSP (49 U.S.C. 31102), HSP (23 U.S.C. 402), and Other State Plans (e.g. Freight Plans, Ped/Bike Plan). The flowchart shows a two-way exchange between these three blocks and the SHSP block but no exchange between one another. Finally, the flowchart shows a two-way exchange between the STIP block at the bottom of the flowchart and the Statewide Transportation Plan block at the top of the flowchart.

Slide 30:  FHWA Safety Program

This slide displays a map of the United States. States are grouped into three color-coded categories: Not Updated, In Process, and Updated. The following table lists each state and the category it falls into.

Status States %
Updated 11 States:
Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin
22%
In Process 15 States:
Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, West Virginia
33%
Not Updated 22 States:
Arizona, Arkansas , California, Colorado, Florida , Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, Wyoming
45%
Total 48 100%
Status to be determined: Alaska, Vermont

Slide 31:  Factors Influencing Update Decision

This slide displays a vertical bar graph titled Factors Influencing Update Decision. Factors appear along the X-axis and percentages (% of States Reporting) appear along the Y-axis.
Factors with their response rates are:

Designated time frame — 23%
Date — 31%
New interests or partners — 3%
FHWA guidance — 8%
Build on what we learned — 15%
Goals met, new ones set — 15%
New emphasis area(s) — 18%
Implementation — 28%
Political/organizational change — 10%
Need for more focus/energy — 10%
Consistency with other plans — 8%

Slide 32:  SHSP Update

  • Challenges
    - Change
    - States waiting to see reauthorization
    - ARRA and other priorities
    - Staff changes — State and Federal
  • Opportunities
    - Increased effectiveness
    - More comprehensive and inclusive
    - Engage more stakeholders

Slide 33:  "The Essential Eight Fundamental Elements and Effective Steps for SHSP Implementation"

This slide displays an image of four overlapping circles: Leadership, Communication, Collaboration, and Data Collection & Analysis. The image is titled The Essential Eight Fundamental Elements and Effective Steps for SHSP Implementation. Superimposed on top of the overlapped circles are four blocks labeled (from top to bottom): Emphasis Area Action Plan, then Integrating into other Transportation Plans, then Marketing, and finally Monitoring, Evaluation, and Feedback.

A Strategic Highway Safety Plan Implementation Process Model

Slide 34:  Using the Implementation Process Model (IPM)

  • Chapters
  • Key Strategies
  • Narrative
  • Checklists
  • Case Studies

Slide 35:  SHSP Implementation Process Model

  • Ch. 1 — The SHSP IPM
  • Ch. 2 — Leadership, Collaboration, and Communication
  • Ch. 3 — Collecting, Analyzing, and Sharing Data
  • Ch. 4 — Emphasis Area Action Plans
  • Ch. 5 — Integration into Other Transportation Plans and Programs
    - 5.1 Long-Range Transportation Plans & Transportation Improvement Programs
    - 5.2 Highway Safety Improvement Programs
    - 5.3 Highway Safety Plans
    - 5.4 Commercial Vehicle Safety Plans
    - 5.5 Plan and Program Integration Checklist and Timeline
  • Ch. 6 — Marketing
  • Ch. 7 — Monitoring, Evaluation, and Feedback

Slide 36:  (HSIP) — 10% Flex Funds

  • Amount of Flex Funds Approved for Spending — 20 million
  • Number of States using flex funds — 10
    Alabama, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, Utah, Wisconsin

Slide 37:  (HSIP) — 10% Flex Funds Activities

  • Traffic records
  • Occupant protection programs
  • Impaired driving programs
  • Young drivers programs
  • Drowsy driving programs
  • Attorney General's Office to support the Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutor

Slide 38:  FHWA Safety Program

A slide titled FHWA Safety Program displaying a map of the United States. States are grouped into three color-coded categories: Approved 10% Flex, Approved 10% Flex — FY09, and No 10% Flex. The tally for each category is 10, 4, and 41 respectively. Below is a list of states and the category each falls into:

Alabama — Approved 10% Flex
Alaska — No 10% Flex
Arizona — No 10% Flex
Arkansas — No 10% Flex
California — No 10% Flex
Colorado — Approved 10% Flex (FY09)
Connecticut — No 10% Flex
Delaware — No 10% Flex
Florida — No 10% Flex
Georgia — No 10% Flex
Hawaii — Approved 10% Flex
Idaho — Approved 10% Flex
Illinois — No 10% Flex
Indiana — No 10% Flex
Iowa — No 10% Flex
Kansas — No 10% Flex
Kentucky — No 10% Flex
Louisiana — No 10% Flex
Maine — No 10% Flex
Maryland — No 10% Flex
Massachusetts — No 10% Flex
Michigan — Approved 10% Flex
Minnesota — Approved 10% Flex (FY09)
Mississippi — No 10% Flex
Missouri — No 10% Flex
Montana — No 10% Flex
Nebraska — Approved 10% Flex (FY09)
Nevada — Approved 10% Flex (FY09)
New Hampshire — No 10% Flex
New Jersey — No 10% Flex
New Mexico — No 10% Flex
New York — No 10% Flex
North Carolina — No 10% Flex
North Dakota — No 10% Flex
Ohio — No 10% Flex
Oklahoma — No 10% Flex
Oregon — No 10% Flex
Pennsylvania — No 10% Flex
Rhode Island — No 10% Flex
South Carolina — No 10% Flex
South Dakota — No 10% Flex
Tennessee — No 10% Flex
Texas — No 10% Flex
Utah — Approved 10% Flex
Vermont — No 10% Flex
Virginia — No 10% Flex
Washington — No 10% Flex
West Virginia — No 10% Flex
Wisconsin — Approved 10% Flex
Wyoming — No 10% Flex

Under the map is the tally of fatalities:
2007 — 41,259
2008 — 37,261

Slide 39:  Federal-Aid Funding Sources

  • Safety Programs
    - Highway Safety Improvement Program
    - High Risk Rural Roads Program
    - Highway-Railway Crossing Program
    - Safe Routes to School
  • Other Federal-Aid Programs
    - Interstate Maintenance
    - Surface Transportation Program
    - National Highway System
    - Equity Bonus
    - Congestion, Mitigation and Air Quality
    - Federal Lands

Slide 40:  Other Federal Safety Resources

  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    - State and Community Highway Safety Grants (402)
    - Occupant Protection Incentive Grants (405)
    - Safety Belt Performance Grants (406)
    - State Traffic Safety Information System Improvement Grants (408)
    - Alcohol-Impaired Driving Countermeasures Incentives Grants (410)
    - Motorcyclist Safety Grants (SAFETEA-LU Section 2010)
  • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
    - Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (49 CFR 350)

Slide 41:  Program Resources

  • HSIP Program Fact Sheet
  • SHSP Program Fact Sheet
  • HSIP & SHSP Guidance
  • State Safety Fact Sheets
  • Safety Briefing Book — Making the Case for Transportation Safety — Ideas for Decision Makers
  • Draft Strategic Highway Safety Plans Implementation Process Model (SHSP IPM)
  • The Champion's Guide for Developing Strategic Highway Safety Plans
  • Web-site: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/

Slide 42:  Questions???

Tamiko Burnell
Office of Safety Programs
tamiko.burnell@dot.gov
202-366-1200

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Missouri Department of Transportation

Slide 43:  System-wide Safety Solutions

Missouri's Approach to Saving Lives

Jon Nelson, P.E.
Missouri Department of Transportation

Slide 44:  Missouri Roadways

  • State highway system
    - 32,000 + miles
    - 7th largest in the U.S.
  • Local Roads
    - 100,000 + miles
  • 166,000 crashes per year since 2005
  • 68 billion vehicle miles traveled (VMT)

Slide 45:  Traffic Safety in Missouri

The Mission: Reducing fatalities and serious injuries on all Missouri roadways

Slide 46:  Missouri's Safety Philosophy

  • Previous efforts: Specific crash locations
    - Total crashes
    - High accident locations — "Black Spots"
    - Minimal overall effect
  • High severity lists
    - Focus on severe crashes
    - Still location based

Slide 47:  Missouri — Fatalities

This slide displays a bar graph with data for years 1996 – 2005. The graph shows the number of fatalities on state roads in each year between 1996 and 2005. The X-axis shows years beginning with 1996 and ending with 2005. The Y-axis displays numbers ranging between 950 and 1,300. The yearly results are:

  • 1996 — 1,145
  • 1997 — 1,192
  • 1998 — 1,169
  • 1999 — 1,094
  • 2000 — 1,157
  • 2001 — 1,098
  • 2002 — 1,208
  • 2003 — 1,232
  • 2004 — 1,130
  • 2005 — 1,257

Slide 48:  Missouri — Serious Injuries

This slide displays a bar graph with data for years 1996 – 2005. The graph shows the number of serious injuries on state roads in each year between 1996 and 2005. The X-axis shows years beginning with 1996. The Y-axis displays numbers ranging between 7,000 and 11,000. The yearly results are:

  • 1996 — 10,328
  • 1997 — 10,202
  • 1998 — 9,538
  • 1999 — 9,214
  • 2000 — 9,098
  • 2001 — 8,620
  • 2002 — 9,156
  • 2003 — 8,370
  • 2004 — 8,857
  • 2005 — 8,624

Slide 49:  Crash Locations are Random

This slide shows a map of Missouri highways and the location of fatal crashes in 2007.

Slide 50:  Crash Types are Predictable

2006: No Seat Belt, Run Off Road, Aggressive, Curves, Impaired

2007: No Seat Belt, Run Off Road, Aggressive, Curves, Impaired

2008: No Seat Belt, Run Off Road, Aggressive, Curves, Impaired

Slide 51:  Crash Types are Predictable

Description 2005 2006 2007 Total
Unrestrained Occupants 621 576 478 1,675
Killed in Run-Off-Road Crashes 594 494 447 1,535
Aggressive Driving Involved
Following too close 23 23 18 64
Too fast for conditions 316 290 254 860
Speed exceeded limit 226 195 174 595
TOTAL for 3 aggressive driving conditions 565 508 446 1,519
Horizontal Curves Involved 427 375 350 1,152
Alcohol and/or Other Drugs Involved 289 288 257 834
Inattentive Drivers Involved 313 262 247 822
Young Drivers — 15–20 Involved 262 245 180 687
Killed in Head-On Crashes 253 154 164 571

Slide 52:  Crash Types are Predictable

A common characteristic: Lane Departure

See "X" in far right column for crash types that share this characteristic:

Description 2005 2006 2007 Total  
Unrestrained Occupants 621 576 478 1,675  
Killed in Run-Off-Road Crashes 594 494 447 1,535 X
Aggressive Driving Involved
Following too close 23 23 18 64  
Too fast for conditions 316 290 254 860 X
Speed exceeded limit 226 195 174 595 X
TOTAL for 3 aggressive driving conditions 565 508 446 1,519  
Horizontal Curves Involved 427 375 350 1,152 X
Alcohol and/or Other Drugs Involved 289 288 257 834 X
Inattentive Drivers Involved 313 262 247 822 X
Young Drivers — 15–20 Involved 262 245 180 687  
Killed in Head-On Crashes 253 154 164 571 X

Slide 53:  Missouri's Safety Philosophy

  • Continue to focus on severe crashes
    - Fatalities and serious injuries
  • Focus on system-wide improvements
    - Identify crash types
    - Tier the system
  • Continue to use crash data
  • Address "Black Spots" where appropriate
    - Balance between system-wide and spot locations

Slide 54:  Missouri's Safety Philosophy

The Mission

  • Reducing fatalities and serious injuries on all Missouri roadways

The Goal

  • Previous SHSP (2004): Missouri's Blueprint for Safer Roadways
  • 1,000 or fewer fatalities by 2008

Slide 55:  Missouri — Fatalities

This slide displays a vertical bar graph titled Number of Fatalities. The graph shows the number of fatalities by quarter in calendar years 2005 through 2009. The X-axis is labeled Calendar Years; the Y-axis displays numbers that range between 0 – 1,500. A vertical bar broken into quarters is displayed for each year. The number of fatalities appears in each quarter:

  • 2005 – Present
Year 1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter Total
2005 301 323 326 307 1257
2006 268 285 273 270 1096
2007 221 248 274 249 992
2008 204 243 251 262 960
2009 198 200 218   616
  • Goal met!
    - Last time fatalities below 1,000: 1993

Slide 56:  Missouri — Serious Injuries

This slide displays a vertical bar graph titled Number of Disabling Injuries. The graph shows the number of serious injuries in calendar years 2004 through 2008. The X-axis is labeled Calendar Years; the Y-axis are numbers that range between 0 – 10,000. A vertical bar is displayed for each year. At the top of each bar is the total number of serious injuries for that calendar year. The number of disabling injuries per year:

2004 – Present

  • 2004 — 8,857
  • 2005 — 8,624
  • 2006 — 8,150
  • 2007 — 7,742
  • 2008 — 6,931

Slide 57:  Current SHSP (2008)

This slide displays images (highway, mother with infant in child's car seat, DWI outreach van) from the publication Missouri's Blueprint to Arrive Alive.
  • Blueprint to Arrive Alive
  • 4 E's
  • New goal: 850 or fewer fatalities by 2012

www.savemolives.com

Slide 58:  Emphasis Areas

This slide displays three photos: 1) Highway work zone, 2) Man shaving while driving, 3) Motorcycle driver with passenger.

  • Serious Crash Types
  • High-Risk Drivers and Occupants
  • Special Vehicles
  • Vulnerable Roadway Users
  • Special Roadway Environments

Slide 59:  Key Strategies

The Targeted 10

  1. Primary Seat Belt Law
  2. Public Education
  3. Targeted Enforcement
  4. Punish Drunk Drivers
  5. Improve Curve Recognition
  6. Install Rumble Stripes
  7. Improve Signs & Stripes
  8. Install Shoulders
  9. Improve Intersection Safety
  10. Remove/Shield Fixed Objects

Slide 60:  System-wide Improvements

  • With over 32,000 miles, where do we start?
  • Nearly half of Missouri's fatalities were occurring on just 5,500 miles of the system
    - Started by focusing on major roads

Roadway Miles — major: 5,500; minor: 27,000
Miles Traveled — major: 80%; minor: 20%
Fatalities — major: 45%; minor: 55%

Slide 61:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

  • 2,200 miles of most heavily traveled roads
    - 2005–2006
    - 7% of the state system
    - 60% of the VMT
  • $360 million

Slide 62:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

This slide displays a map that shows the location of highways under the Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

Slide 63:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

  • Improved roadway surface
    - Asphalt overlays
    - Concrete diamond grinding
  • 6-inch edgelines; Rumble stripes
    - Epoxy
  • 6-inch lane lines
    - 3M waffle tape
    - Wet reflective

Close-up photo of a roadway surface

Slide 64:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

Photo of a two-lane highway

Slide 65:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

  • Sign upgrades
  • Delineation
    - Guardrail
    - Guard cable
    - Jersey barrier
  • Emergency reference markers

Photo of a mileage sign

Slide 66:  Smooth Roads Initiative (SRI)

Photo of a guardrail along a breakdown lane

Slide 67:  Better Roads, Brighter Future

  • Next 3,300 miles of major roads
    - 2007–2011
    - Mostly 2-lane roadways
  • 85% of major roads in "good" condition by the end of 2011
  • $124 Million
    - HSIP funds for safety components

Slide 68:  Better Roads, Brighter Future

This slide displays a statewide map showing Missouri's major highway system with blown up maps showing regional major highway system in St. Louis, Kansas City, St. Joseph, and Springfield.

Slide 69:  Better Roads, Brighter Future

  • Minimum expectations (all major roads):
    - Smooth driving surface
    - Minimum 4' paved shoulder
    - Improved signing
  • Over 1,000 miles will receive edgeline + centerline rumble stripes

Slide 70:  Better Roads, Brighter Future

Photo of a rural, two-lane road

Slide 71:  Median Guard Cable

  • 1999: Spot locations in St. Louis
  • 2004: System-wide installation
  • Criteria
    - Interstates
    - Severe crash history
  • $100,000 per mile
  • Current installations
    - 600 miles to date
    - Low and high tension
    - Expressways added

Photo of a car and tractor-trailer on a highway

Slide 72:  Median Guard Cable

  • Studied all reported cross-median crashes
    - 1999–2005
    - 1,400 crashes
  • 95% success rate
    - Vehicle did not enter opposing lanes

Photo of an automobile resting against a median guard cable

Slide 73:  Median Guard Cable

  • Recently completed more updated study
    - I-70 and I-44
    - 2005–2008
    - 4,622 crashes
    - 103 "failures"
  • 98% success rate
    - 97.3% on I-70
    - 98.3% on I-44

Photo of a tractor-trailer on its side, resting on top of a media guard cable

Slide 74:  Median Guard Cable

This slide displays a line graph showing Interstate Cross-Median Fatalities and Median Guard Cable Installation. The years 1999 to 2008 are displayed along the X-axis. The left Y-axis is labeled Cross-Median Fatalities and the right Y-axis is labeled Miles of Median Guard Cable. The graph shows that miles of median guard cable has increased from no miles in 1999 to almost 600 miles in 2008. At the same time, the graph shows cross-median fatalities have decreased from just over 50 in 1999 to fewer than 10 in 2008.

Slide 75:  Median Guard Cable

This slide displays a graphic showing three cross-median fatalities occurred on Interstates 70 and 44 one year after the installation of median guard cables. The year before the installation, 49 fatalities occurred on the same routes.

Slide 76:  Making Safety Policy

  • Rumble stripes
    - All major roads
    - All minor roads with crash history
  • 6-inch stripes
    - All edgelines, multi-lane skips
  • Curve speed plaques
    - All curve/turn signs

Slide 77:  Making Safety Policy

Images from MoDOT's Engineering Policy Guide

Slide 78:  Additional System-Wide Improvements

  • Edgeline striping
    - AADT greater than 400
    - Road width 20' or greater
      » 7,600 miles between 400 and 1,000 AADT
      » 6,800 of these miles (90%) are on HRRR Routes
  • Improved curve visibility
    - Chevrons on all curves with advisory speeds 15 mph or more below the posted speed limit

Slide 79:  Edgeline Striping

This slide displays a map that shows the location of Missouri road with Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) ranging between 400 – 1000 vehicles. The map is titled High Risk Rural Roads Program — Routes with 400 to 1,000 AADT. The map also shows the functional class of the routes in the High Risk Rural Roads Program, labeling them as Major and Minor Collector and Local.

Slide 80:  Edgeline Striping

Edgeline Stripes are Low Cost Solutions

18 lives per year?

A photo of a two-lane road before and after the installation of edgeline stripes

Slide 81:  Chevrons

A photo of a curving two-lane road bounded by chevrons

Slide 82:  Additional System-Wide Improvements

  • Intersection safety plan
    - Signing packages
    - Uniform signal clearance interval timing
    - Reflectorized back plates
    - Lighting
  • Fluorescent yellow sheeting
  • Remove/shield fixed objects
  • Eliminate edge drop-off

Slide 83:  Intersection Visibility

This slide displays a graphic that shows a T-intersection with the suggested placement of a mountable curb and signage.

Slide 84:  Fluorescent Yellow Sheeting

This slide displays a photo that shows highway overpass with fluorescent yellow sheeting.

Slide 85:  Remove Isolated Trees

This slide displays a photo that shows a lone, isolated tree along a two-lane rural road.

Slide 86:  Eliminate Edge Drop-Off

This slide shows a before-and-after photo of a road where the edge drop-off was eliminated.

Slide 87:  System-wide Improvements

  • Are they working?
    - Since 2005, fatalities on major roads down 48%
       »VMT steady during that same period
    - Lane departure fatalities down 25%
    - Over a 90 percent reduction in fatalities on routes we have installed median guard cable
       »In-house MoDOT study

Slide 88:  System-wide Improvements

  • Are they working?
    - 24% decrease in fatalities from 2005 to 2008.
       »1,257 fatalities in 2005.
       »960 fatalities in 2008.
       »850 fatalities or less in 2012???
    - On pace to be below 900 in 2009.
       »Last time fatalities below 900: 1950

Slide 89:  Remember. . .

  • Fatal crash locations are random.
       »Curves
       »Impaired Driving
  • Fatal crash types are predictable.
       »No seat belt
       »Run off road
       »Aggressive Driving

Slide 90:  Contact Information

Back to Top


Washington State Department of Transportation

Slide 91:  Washington State's Strategic Highway Safety Plan

Featuring: The Traffic Safety Corridor Program — Our Integrated Systems Approach in Action

Presented by:
Angie Ward
Washington Traffic Safety Commission

Matthew Enders
Washington State Department of Transportation

Date: November 2009
Location: Boise, Idaho

Slide 92:  Purpose

  • To present Washington's process for developing our Strategic Highway Safety Plan — Target Zero
  • To share details of just one Washington program guided by the integrated systems approach.

Slide 93:  The Crash Problem

  • The CDC reports the number one cause of death for people between the ages of 4 and 34 in the U.S. is motor vehicle crashes!
  • The bottom line is that crashes impact every aspect of our lives to include mobility, congestion, and the preservation of our infrastructure.

Slide 94:  The Crash Problem

  • The FHWA recently updated its crash cost estimates (2007):
    - Fatality — $5,800,000
    - Serious Injury — $ 288,845
    - Visible injury — $ 80,904
    - Possible Injury — $ 53,626
    - Property Damage — $ 6,209

Slide 95:  Washington Crash Profile

  • Since 1995, an average of over 600 people have died each year in traffic crashes;
  • Each year more than 3,500 serious injury crashes occur in Washington;
  • Each year more than 140,000 collisions occur on Washington's roadways; and
  • In 2007 the total economic cost of motor vehicle collisions in Washington was more than $5.8 billion.

Slide 96:  Most Frequent Causes of Fatal Crashes in Washington?

  • Over 80% of traffic deaths result from behavioral errors.
  • In Washington, 4 out of every 5 traffic deaths involve impairment, speed, or non-belt use or some combination of these three factors.

Slide 97:  WASHINGTON TRAFFIC FATALITIES, 1993–2008*

By Year, *2008 based on preliminary data

This slide contains a line graph titled Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1993 — 2008 – By Year (2008 based on preliminary data). The X-axis displays values for single years from 1993 through 2007. Numbers ranging from 500 to 750 run along the Y-axis. The graph shows that the overall trend in traffic fatalities is decreasing while the actual number of traffic fatalities is generally dropping despite several spikes in fatalities in several years.

Slide 98:  Acceptable Progress?

  • No!
  • Over 500 people dying each year on WA roadways is not success.
  • In order to change this trend the state needed a radical new approach to traffic safety planning.

Solution — an Integrated Systems Approach to traffic safety planning.

Slide 99:  Washington State's Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP)

TARGET ZERO
A collaborative effort to improve transportation safety on all public roads

Slide 100:  Target Zero Vision

  • To eliminate fatal and serious injury crashes by 2030
  • Question: Is this a viable traffic safety planning strategy, or is it just wishful thinking?

Slide 101:  Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1980–2008

Projected to 2030 (preliminary data for 2008)
PREPARED BY WTSC — May 2009 (Source: FARS)

The line graph on this slide shows the downward trend in traffic fatalities ("Current trend is a decrease of 9.6 traffic fatalities per year") but also a performance gap ("To reach the goal of zero traffic fatalities by 2030 will require a decrease of 25 fatalities per year!").

Slide 102:  Implementing a Data Driven Collaborative Approach to Transportation Safety

  • The state must develop and implement a Strategic Highway Safety Plan.
  • Which outlines specific elements including:
    - Statewide goals
    - Emphasis areas
    - Specific strategies
    - Performance Measures

Slide 103:  Benefits of an Integrated Systems Approach to Traffic Safety

  • Collaboration among organizations to address transportation safety issues
  • Assists policy makers when prioritizing investments.
  • Outlines specific elements of the state's approach to transportation safety including: - Goals
    - Emphasis Areas
    - Performance Measures
    - Broad range of proven strategies

Slide 104:  Key Elements of Target Zero

  • Many partners
  • Data driven
  • Establishes priorities and goals
  • Implemented via proven strategies and best practices
  • Aggressively evaluates results
  • Makes course corrections as warranted

Slide 105:  Determining Target Zero Priorities

  • Analyze all available data;
  • Identify the target areas where investment of resources will generate the greatest safety benefits; and
  • Group priority areas into four levels, with Priority 1 being the most critical.

Slide 106:  Desired Outcomes

  • Has the development, implementation, and refinement of Target Zero begun to generate desired outcomes?
  • Let's review some of the performance data.

Slide 107:  WASHINGTON TRAFFIC FATALITIES, 1993–2008*

By Year, *2008 based on preliminary data

This slide displays a line graph titled Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1993 – 2008 — By Year (2008 based on preliminary data). The X-axis displays values for each year beginning with 1993 and ending with 2007. Numbers ranging from 500 to 750 run along the X-axis. The graph shows the overall trend in traffic fatalities is decreasing, as is the actual number of traffic fatalities, despite several spikes in fatalities during the period.

Slide 108:  WASHINGTON TRAFFIC FATALITIES, 1993–2008*

By Year, *2008 based on preliminary data

This slide displays a line graph titled Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1993 – 2008 — By Year (2008 based on preliminary data). The X-axis displays values for each year beginning with 1993 and ending with 2007. Numbers that show the fatality rate range from 0.6 to 1.6 along the Y-axis. The graph shows the overall trend in traffic fatalities is decreasing, as is the rate of traffic fatalities, despite several spikes in fatalities during the period.

Slide 109:  Washington Traffic Safety Exposure Changes, 1978–2008

Population, Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, and Travel

This slide displays a line graph titled Washington Traffic Safety Exposure Changes, 1978 – 2000. Population, Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, and Travel. Along the X-axis are the years 1978, 1988, 1998, 2008. Population, Drivers, Vehicles (in thousands) is displayed along the left Y-axis, with a range of 2,000 to 7,000. Vehicle Miles Traveled (in millions) is displayed along the right X-axis, with a range of 20,000 to 70,000. The graph shows that, between the years 1978 and 2008, the number of licensed drivers has increased by 102%; the number of vehicle miles traveled by 89%; the number of registered vehicles by 102%; while the population has increased by 75%. (Source: OFM, DOL, WSDOT.)

Slide 110:  19,151 Lives Saved in Washington State Since 1980

This slide displays an area diagram titled 19,151 Lives Saved in Washington State since 1980. The area occupied by Lives Saved has increased since 1983 while the area occupied by Actual Fatalities has decreased. (Source: Data source: FARS, WSDOT. Data for 2008 is preliminary.)

The following text accompanies the diagram: In 1980, the drinking-driver involved (DDI) fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle-Miles-Traveled was 2.16. The preliminary 2008 fatality rate is .41. If we had continued at the 1980 fatality rate, another 19,151 people would have lost their lives in collisions in Washington involving a drinking driver from 1981–2008.

Slide 111:  Analysis Shows

  • WA has exceeded Target Zero annual goals since 2006;
  • Researchers believe the transition to an integrated systems approach is a significant factor;
  • However, 518 lives lost in 2008 is not the level of success desired; and
  • There is much work yet to be done.

Slide 112:  Causal Factor Analysis

  • The aggregate data shows improvement, but clearly not enough;
  • Crash analysis needs to specifically determine where the most reductions in fatal crashes can be realized; and
  • What did Washington's analysis show?

Slide 113:  The Role of Impairment, Speed, and Non-Seat Belt Use in Traffic Fatalities

Of the 2,429 traffic fatalities that occurred from 2000–2004, 77 percent involved impairment, speed, and/or non-belt use. This accounted for 1880 deaths.

Image: Slide shows image of overlapping blocks of Impairment Deaths, Non Belted Deaths, and Speed Deaths. Each block contains a number and percentage of its contribution to the 1,880 of the 2,429 traffic deaths that occurred between 2000 – 2004. The image shows that:

  • 390 deaths involved crashes where impairment (33% of the 390), speed (38%), and non belted (33%) were contributing factors.
  • 300 deaths involved crashes where impairment (25% of the 300) and non belted (26%) were contributing factors.
  • 222 deaths involved crashes where impairment (19% of the 222) and speed (21%) were contributing factors.
  • 194 deaths involved crashes where speed (19% of the 194) and non belted (16%) were contributing factors.

Slide 114:  DRIVER ERRORS IN WASHINGTON FATAL CRASHES, 1996–2005

By Percent of All Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes

This slide displays a vertical bar graph titled Driver Errors in Washington Fatal Crashes, 1996 – 2005 — By Percent of all Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes. The X-axis displays the factor listed in the following table. The Y-axis displays the percentage of crashes attributable to each factor:

Impairment
Speeding
Inattention
Failure to Yield
Failure to Obey
Overcorrecting
Drowsiness
Improper Passing
Recklessness
Following Too Closely
Improper Turning
No Errors
27.7%
24.9%
17.4%
8.3%
4.6%
4.2%
3.6%
2.1%
1.2%
1.0%
0.7%
31.4%
Source: FARS

Driver Errors: As indicated on the police accident reports. Investigating officers can input up to four driver errors for each driver involved in a fatal collision. "No errors" indicates the driver was not committing any traffic offense when the collision occurred, implying they were not at fault in the collision.

Slide 115:  Priority One

  • Impaired Driving
  • Speeding

Slide 116:  Priority Two

  • Seat Belts
  • Intersection Crashes
  • Run off the Road Crashes
  • Improved Traffic Records Data

Slide 117:  Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1980–2008

Projected to 2030 (preliminary data for 2008)
PREPARED BY WTSC — May 2009 (Source: FARS)

A slide displaying a line graph titled Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1980–2008 — Projected to 2030 (preliminary date for 2008) — Prepared by WTSC — May 2009 (Source: FARS). The graph shows the downward trend in traffic fatalities ("Current trend is a decrease of 9.6 traffic fatalities per year") but also a performance gap ("To reach the goal of zero traffic fatalities by 2030 will require a decrease of 25 fatalities per year!"). The graph projects fatalities in 2030 at 360.

Slide 118:  States Traffic Safety Structure

  • Was WA structured and organized properly to effectively implement Target Zero?
  • Answer — NO!
  • The diverse traffic safety infrastructure and organizations operated independently in their respective silos.
  • If Target Zero were to be implemented effectively, this had to radically change!

Slide 119:  Governor Gregoire's Priorities for Washington

This slide contains a flowchart that shows inputs into the Washington Transportation Plan (WTP), which then informs the Safety Section in the Traffic Safety Commission's Funding Plan and Washington's Strategic Highway Safety Plan.

Slide 120:  Governor Gregoire's Priorities for Washington

A collection of images that show highway safety programs are developed (with input from local agencies, private industry and non-profit groups, and Indian Nations), documented in Target Zero, Washington State's Strategic Highway Safety Plan, and implemented through legislation carried out by agencies that include: Washington State Department of Transportation, Washington State Transportation Improvement Board, Washington State Patrol, Washington Superintendent of Public Instruction, Washington Traffic Safety Commission, State of Washington Department of Licensing, Washington State Department of Social & Health Services, the Washington State Department of Health, and the Washington State County Road Administration Board .

Slide 121:  National Agenda for Transportation Safety (SAFETEA-LU)

This slide displays icons representing engineering, law enforcement, emergency medical services, and education. The slide shows these as inputs into Washington's Strategic Highway Safety Plan.

Slide 122:  Putting "Target Zero" to Work!

A slide with the logo of the Washington Traffic Safety Commission. Images on this slide show that implementation of Target Zero requires the agency funding plan, proper staffing (structure & personnel), Traffic Safety Awards Program, and Agency Government & Accountability.

Slide 123:  Linking WTSC Goals to the Governor's Priorities

This slide displays three blocks at the top of the slide titled: Holding Government Accountable, Protecting Our Health and Safety, and Building a Safe and Efficient Transportation System. Each of the blocks is an input into the Washington Transportation Plan (WTP). Further, the WTP is an input into the Safety Section of the Target Zero, Washington State's Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Beneath the Target Zero icon two Target Zero — Priority 1 Goals icons: Reduce drinking-driver-involved fatalities and Reduce speeding-related fatalities. Opposite these icons and two Target Zero — Priority 2 icons: Reduce vehicle-occupant fatalities and Increase he timeliness and accuracy of statewide collision data. The slide then shows that all four goals have objectives and performance measures that all contribute to the Key Performance Measure of reducing statewide traffic fatalities and reducing the fatality rate.

Slide 124:  Putting "Target Zero" to Work!

The slide shows four tracks: Alcohol Intervention Programs, WA EMS Information System (WEMSIS), and Health MAP.

Slide 125:  Outcome of this Change

  • Would then drive:
    - The application of targeted countermeasures — proven strategies and best practices;
    - The allocation of all traffic safety resources — people, time and money; and
    - And the ongoing and aggressive evaluation of these initiatives.
  • Question — How was this accomplished?

Slide 126:  Fatal and Serious Injury Collisions — 2002–2006

A map shows the location of fatalities and serious injuries by location on City, County, and State roads.

Slide 127:  Olympic Region — Fatal, Serious, and Evident Injury Collisions — 2002 through 2006 — Ten Mile Length Segments

The map shows the location of collisions broken down by subtotals of 1 – 14; 15 – 49; 50 – 139; 140 – 249; 250 – 312.

Slide 128 

Slide with no title that shows crash along corridors. Activity varies from yellow (fewer instances) to red (great instances).

Slide 129: 

This slide contains 3 maps showing concentration of fatalities.

Slide 130:  Highways and Local Roads — Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) Qualifying Locations

Slide with a map titled Highways and Local Roads — Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) Qualifying Locations. The map displays a legend (Statewide Fatal & Serious Collision Counts 1/10th Mile Buffer.

Slide 131:  Olympic Region: SR 7 MP Vic. — Fatal, Serious, and Evident Injury Collisions, 2002 – 2006

Map shows the location of injury relation collisions along SR 7.

Slide 132:  2008 Pierce County MC Fatalities

This slide displays a table titled 2008 Pierce County MC Fatalities. The slide indicates that the information is preliminary and subject to change; for internal use only. The shows fatalities are categorized. The table displays representative data under the following columns and sub-columns: Roadway (RD TYPE, TR ID#); Vehicle (VEH#, BODY TYPE); Driver Information (PER TYPE, REG OWNER, DRF1, DRF2, DRF4, MC ENDORS?, HELMET?); DRIVING HISTORY (PRV CR, PRV DUI, PRV OTH, PRV SPD, PRV SUS/REV); and TOX SCREEN (BAC, DRUG1, DRUG2).

Slide 133:  An Example of a Target Zero Delivery System: The Corridor Safety Program

  • The goal: Reduce fatal and serious injury collisions on a defined section of roadway; using
  • Low cost, near term solutions; and building
  • Partnerships with community groups, business, engineering, enforcement, education and emergency services.

Slide 134:  The Process

  • WA State DOT works with Highway Safety Office to identify high collision roadways, then approach local leadership; OR
  • Community comes to us with concern about a particular stretch of roadway.

Slide 135:  The Process — Part 2

  • Determine presence of local leadership for a two year project;
  • During the first six months, meet monthly with local steering committee to build an action plan for education, enforcement, and engineering; and
  • Once Action Plan is built:
    - Public kick off
    - Quarterly meetings to coordinate work
    - Track results

Slide 136:  SUITABLE CORRIDORS

  • Arterial or related set of roadways
  • Clearly definable (State Route, City Street)
  • Workable size
  • Within governmental jurisdictions that can and will work together
  • Collision problems that can be countered by low-cost, near-term actions

Slide 137:  Steering Committee

  • WTSC
  • WSDOT
  • WSP
  • Local Regional Traffic Engineer
  • County Sheriff
  • Local Community Traffic Safety Task Force
  • Liquor Control Board
  • Local EMS
  • City/County Public Works
  • School District
  • Media
  • Transit
  • Local elected officials
  • MADD
  • Anyone who has an interest in traffic safety

Slide 138:  SHOW THE PROJECT WORKS

  1. Identify Project
  2. Recruit Steering Committee
  3. Analyze Problems
  4. Draft Action Plan, Problems and Solutions
  5. Publicize
  6. Plan into Action

(Projects last 18 months to two years from kick-off)

Slide 139:  Analyze Problem Subjectively

Image of people riding on a subway car

Slide 140:  Analyze the Problem

  • Objectively
  • Data

Slide 141:  Average Daily Traffic

Aurora Ave N (Battery St Tunnel to N 145th St)
2006

This slide displays a street map that highlights Aurora Ave N. The map show the average traffic counts along the avenue

Slide 142:  Action Plan

  • Within the resources available through members of the steering committee
  • Measurable Impact
  • Supported by a majority of the committee

Slide 143:  Logo Creation

This slide shows five logos used to promote highway safety.

Slide 144:  SR 27 Spokane Billboard

This slide shows a road sign diamond sign with the words Phrase SLOW DOWN. Next to the signs is "189 crashes on this road last year. 2 were fatal." At the bottom right of the slide is the "Drive Smart — Stay Safe" logo.

Slide 145:  US 2

Slide shows one image of U2 safety logo "US2 Drive Safe" and a photo of highway sign with an installed electronic counter. Opposite the counter is the signage "Days Since Last Serious Crash. Stay Alert. Stay Alive." Serious crash counts appear on the electronic counter (currently the counter has registered no serious crashes).

  • Second Counting Days unveiled, August 4
  • Educational materials being distributed at various summer fairs and events
  • 235 hours of police overtime worked in May/June
  • WSDOT — US 2 Traffic Safety Corridor

Slide 146:  Aurora Avenue Project, City of Seattle

Slide shows two ads used in the Aurora Traffic Safety Project public awareness campaign. First add shows a patrol officer with a radar gun. The sign reads: "Speeding? Expect a $144 ticket." The other ad shows a car on its side, on the highway, badly damaged. The sign reads "R U Speeding? 419 crashes last year on Aurora." Both ads display the Aurora Traffic Safety Project logo.

Slide 147:  Corridor Safety Program: Strategies and Program Results

Identifying Corridors: Selection is based on data and community support:

  • Fatal and serious injury crashes per mile and per million vehicle miles traveled must rank high compared to similar roadways statewide.
  • Local community support for a project must be present.

Corridor Safety Program Strategies and Partner Organizations Work Collaboratively to Improve Safety

Education: WTSC and local partners seek to inform the public of projects and not surprise them with extra enforcement. Generated awareness with target audiences by participating in and organizing events and distributing educational/promotional materials.

Engineering: WSDOT and local partners use small, low cost projects that improve safety and/or reduce congestion on state highways. Typical projects include:

  • Traffic control signing improvements;
  • Roadway striping or other road marking improvements;
  • Installation or improvement of traffic signals or other electronic devices;
  • Roadway access control through channelization or lane reconfiguration.

Enforcement: WSP and local law enforcement agencies utilize Problem Oriented Policing — an approach that promotes public, government, and police partnerships and coactive problem solving to address safety issues.

Results of the Program Show Substantial Safety Benefits

  • The Corridor Safety Program has increased road safety and enhanced community relationships.
  • Costs to society (based on collisions) have dropped from $16.0 Million per year to $11.8 Million per year, a savings of over $4 Million per year per project. Benefit/Cost ratio is estimated at $35/$1.
  • In 28 completed corridors around the state (measuring the average of 3 years before a project versus 2 years after a project) the collision reductions are shown compared to statewide crash information for 2001 to 2006 (shown in parentheses)
    - Fatal and serious injury collisions are down 34% (statewide down 10%).
    - Total collisions are down 5% (statewide up 4%).
    - Total injuries are down 11% (statewide down 11%).
    - Alcohol-related collisions are down 15% (statewide up 8%).

Before and After Results for Corridor Safety Projects to Date (Per Year)

Total Collisions (before) 199; (after) 188
Total Injuries (before) 145; (after) 129
Alcohol-Related Collisions (before) 20; (after) 17
Fatal/Serious Collisions (before) 10; (after) 7

Slide 148:  Corridor Safety Program: Case Study — SR 14/Cape Horn Corridor Safety Project

Problem Identification
15.3 mile stretch of SR 14 in southwest Washington, designated a traffic safety corridor because of high crash rates and types.

Crash History

  • 17 fatal / serious injury collisions in 3 years
  • Daily volumes of 4,000 – 4,500 vehicles
  • Top collision types: hit fixed object (75), overturn (20), opposite direction sideswipe (14)

Causes

  • Top contributing causes: exceeding safe speed (88), over centerline (33), under influence of alcohol (11)
    - Exceeding Safe Speed: crashes occur 86% higher than on similar highways in the region and 104% higher than on state highways
       »Single leading contributing cause of fatal and serious crashes on the corridor.
    - Over the Centerline: crashes occur 375% higher than region and 740 percent higher state.
    - DUI: crashes occur 13% higher than region and 40% higher than state.

Strategies and Activities

  • Financial, environmental and/or social impacts prevent a construction-only approach from addressing most problem corridors
  • Cape Horn Project's strategy is a multi-disciplinary effort that used the following strategies:
    - Designated a stretch of SR14 as a traffic safety corridor.
    - Created a partnership between WTSC, WSDOT, WSP, the County Sheriff, and a local Steering Committee.
    - Designated three subcommittees to focus on Enforcement, Engineering, and Education.

Slide 149:  SR 14 Education: Inform Public of the Project and Don't Surprise with Extra Enforcement

Education

Generated community member awareness by building project support through local resident and business outreach by:

  • Installing corridor information signs
  • Distributing educational materials
  • Launching a corridor website
  • Developing media stories

The education sub-group, in coordination with Education Service District 112, increased public awareness by reinforcing safe driving habits.

Other strategies included:

  • Town-hall style kick-off event
  • Signage, billboards, promotional items, brochure, website
  • Media, business, and citizen outreach
  • Commercial Vehicle Program
  • Designated Driver Program
  • Distributed safe driving materials, that included a safe driving brochure at local public events
  • Implemented a public awareness campaign that included press releases resulting in numerous articles about the project being published in local papers, a billboard containing a traffic safety message and brochure throughout the local area and asked businesses to display materials in their establishments
  • Launched a speaker's bureau that targeted young drivers and community groups

After two years and upon the completion of the corridor, the task force reported the following results:

  • Over 18,000 educational and promotional items given out to community members — Brochures, pens, vehicle garbage bags and air fresheners.
  • 1000 utility bill inserts sent to customers within the project area.
  • 4,000–4,500 vehicles a day are exposed to traffic safety messages on signs.

Slide 150:  SR 14 Engineering Improvements: Improving signage and roadway realignment

Engineering
WSDOT initiated a number of low cost engineering fixes, including:

  • Installed Corridor Safety Project signage and installed warning signs to highlight areas of concern;
  • Installed centerline rumble strips throughout the corridor;
  • Installed Highway Advisory Radio Systems (HARs) to warn of dangerous road conditions;
  • Improved pedestrian crossings and warning information at the Beacon Rock State Park.
  • At the request of the enforcement subcommittee, WSDOT changed the WSDOT Motor Carrier Rule for commercial vehicles traveling on SR 14 to require that such vehicles be accompanied by three escort vehicles.
  • The drivers must be professionals familiar with the route to alert other motorists to the presence of an over-dimensional load.

Slide 151:  SR 14 Enforcement: Utilizing Problem Oriented Policing

Partnered Solutions:

WSP and Skamania County Sheriff's Office partnered enforcement efforts targeting the excessive speed, following too closely and improper passing.

  • Utilize lasers and in-car video cameras
  • Emphasis patrols on drinking and driving on peak evenings
  • Encourage drivers to use "slow moving vehicle turnouts"
  • WSP motorcycle, Commercial Motor Vehicle Enforcement, and

Aggressive Driving Apprehension Team officers were utilized

  • Citations issued in conjunction with the task force were stamped "Traffic Safety Corridor" so that the district court judge was aware of the effort

After two years and upon the completion of the corridor, the task force reported the following results:

  • Total contacts increased 158%
  • 30% of contacts resulted in a ticket
  • Total number of tickets increased 110% (from 851 to 1,785 tickets written)
  • DUI arrests increased 55% (from 20 to 31 arrests)
  • Speed contacts increased 103% (from 1,522 to 3,093 contacts)
  • 52% of all stops were for speed violations (3,093 contacts)
  • Seatbelt contacts increased 73.2% (from 205 to 355 contacts)

2006 Problem Oriented Public Safety (POPS) Exemplary Project

Slide 152:  SR-14 Project Results: Fatal/Serious Injuries down 65%

Results:
The Cape Horn Corridor Traffic Safety Project established community relationships and inter-agency collaboration, and also made SR-14 safer for motorists and passengers:

Total Number of Collisions
Before (3 years) = 174 (58 / year)
After (2 years) = 98 (49 / year)

Total Number of Alcohol-Related Collisions
Before (3 years) = 21 (7 / year)
After (2 years) = 6 (3 / year)

Total Number of Fatal / Serious Injury Collisions
Before (3 years) = 17 (6 / year)

This slide includes a map that shows locations of Skamania County fatal collisions occurring between 2002 and 2006.

Slide 153:  Washington Corridors past and present

Statewide Corridor Safety Program

  1. East Trent
  2. Snohomish County
  3. US 97
  4. Guide Meridian
  5. SR 14
  6. Mountain Highway
  7. D-Zone
  8. Island/Skagit Counties
  9. Yakima River Canyon
  10. Y-Zone
  11. Lower Yakima Valley
  12. Burlington/Sedro Woolley
  13. 97A
  14. Columbia Gateway
  15. Lake Stevens
  16. Airway Heights
  17. SR 4
  18. Moses Lake
  19. Cross-Kitsap
  20. Memorial Highway
  21. Cape Horn
  22. Kittitas/Vantage Highways
  23. Fourth Plain
  24. Othello
  25. Driving 101
  26. Francis to Nine Mile
  27. Mountain Highway 2
  28. Upper Skagit Valley
  29. Rainier Ave. S.
  30. Mill Plain
  31. US 2 Drive Safe
  32. Spokane Valley

Above: The Corridor Safety Program began in 1991 on state routes in Washington. In 2003 the program expanded to include projects on city streets and county roads. Above is a map showing project locations around the state since the program began, from the earliest (1) to the most recent (32).

Slide 154:  Results from 29 Completed Corridor Projects

  • 34% Reduction in Fatal & Serious Injury Collisions;
  • 15% Reduction in Alcohol-Related Collisions;
  • 11% Reduction in Total Injuries;
  • 5% Reduction in Total Collisions;

Slide 155:  Results from 29 Completed Corridors

  • Carryover of working relationships within the community, which can be used on other traffic safety issues in the future
  • Roadways identified for long term future development

Slide 156:  Results from 29 Completed Corridors

  • $25:$1 Benefit/Cost Ratio — benefit realized by the local community; and
  • Has become an integral element of WA data driven, evidence based, integrated systems approach to traffic safety — "Target Zero"

Slide 157:  Have We Answered the Original Question?

  • Question: Is Target Zero a viable traffic safety strategy, or just wishful thinking?
  • Let's follow one of the core elements of an integrated systems approach to traffic safety planning — aggressively evaluating the data!

Slide 158:  WASHINGTON and U.S. TRAFFIC FATALITY RATES, 1993–2007*

Traffic fatalities per 100 million vehicle-miles traveled, *2007 figures based on preliminary data as of 6/18/08

The line graph on this slide compares Washington State and US rates and trends. The fatality rate and trend in Washington State are below that of the overall U.S. Over the period, the U.S. rate has dropped from 1.75 to 1.35, with an overall steady trend downward. The Washington State rate has dropped from 1.422 to .99, with a downward trend marked by two years ('96 and '05) that spiked upward from the previous year.

Slide 159:  Conclusion

  • Traffic fatalities are a leading cause of death globally;
  • There are distinct similarities for the behaviors causing these deaths;
  • A growing body of research identifies the proven strategies and best practices that can most effectively reduce these deaths;

Slide 160:  Conclusion

  • To significantly reduce traffic fatalities globally, law enforcement, road safety professionals, engineers, medical, health, education professionals, public policy setters must work together to:
    - Create an integrated systems approach to transportation and strategic highway safety planning (SHSP);

Slide 161:  Conclusion

  • Ensure that resources (people, time and money) are allocated to traffic safety programs directly aligned with SHSP priorities;
  • Ensure that traffic safety programs and countermeasures used to implement the SHSP are research and evidence based;

Slide 162:  Conclusion

  • practices based on valid and precise problem identification;
  • Accurately measure and evaluate program performance and make course corrections as warranted;
  • Continually evolve, refine and improve this integrated systems approach to transportation and traffic safety planning; and

Slide 163:  Conclusion

  • The total value of the individual parts of an integrated systems approach to traffic safety is more than the sum of their individual parts!

Slide 164:  Conclusion

  • Remember — what you do in traffic safety each and every day makes a difference in the communities and lives of those we serve!
  • Traffic safety is personal, one life at a time!

Slide 165:  Questions

Slide 166:  Contact Information

Angie Ward
Washington Traffic Safety Commission
award@wtsc.wa.gov
(360) 725-9888

Matthew Enders
Washington State Department of Transportation
endersm@wsdot.wa.gov
(360) 705-6907

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